雉科知識方塊

*知識方塊A

亞成鳥Juvenile的名詞說明

juvenal (adjective):亞成羽的(形容詞)

Refers to the first plumage attained after a birds loses its down feathers.

指一隻鳥脫掉雛鳥期绒毛後,第一次獲得的羽毛。

A bird wearing its juvenal body feathers. In most songbirds juvenal feathers are molted within a few weeks of leaving the nests; thus songbirds are generally considered to be juveniles for only a short period. Some species such as hawks and tubenoses retain juvenal body plumage for a full year.

ㄧ隻身被亞成羽的鳥稱為亞成鳥。大多數鳴禽的亞成羽在離巢幾個星期內換掉。因此鳴禽只在短期間內被認作亞成鳥。有些鳥種如鷹及管鼻類保有亞成羽一整年。

資料來源:The Sibley Guide to Bird Life & Behavior—Glossary

ヒナ/雛鳥/nestling, fledgling

ようちよう/幼鳥/hatchling

ヒナにㄧ通り体羽が生えそろってから、最初の換羽を終えるまで。(雛鳥身上長出體羽至初次換羽完成。)

わかどり/若鳥/juvenile

最初の換羽を終えてから成鳥の羽になるまでおいう。(初次換羽開始至獲得成鳥羽毛止。)

せいちよう/成鳥/adult

生殖が可能になった鳥のこと。(有生殖可能的鳥。)

資料來源:野鳥ガイド…唐澤孝ㄧ著(新星出版社)

鳥類繫放手冊中燕雀目年齡及性別判斷的10.4換羽(Molt)中,有數段名詞解釋:

–幼鳥羽衣(幼羽, Juvenile plumage, Juv) =第1基本羽衣(First basic plumage),鳥離巢後首先長成的羽衣,非絨毛;

–後幼鳥換羽(Postjuvenal molt = Preformative molt, PF) =燕雀目僅發生在1齡,鳥且僅有1 次,以台灣留鳥而言,常發生在秋季(7‐12 月間),視其離巢時間而定,若為冬候鳥或秋過境鳥,則可能在抵達台灣即已完成、在遷徙過程中換羽,也可能先行中斷換羽(Molt interruption)並於抵達度冬地後再重新開始。

–後幼鳥羽衣(後幼羽,Postjuvenal plumage = Formative plumage): 完成後幼鳥換羽(PF)後的羽衣稱之,此次換羽常為部分(Partial molt)或不完全換羽(Incomplete molt)。

資料來源:鳥類繫放手冊,特有生物研究中心林瑞興, 2010/2, p45

 *知識方塊B

Lek (mating arena)求偶競技場

資料來源:The Free Dictionary by Farlex

草原雞的有幾種松雞會舉行競技場求偶配對儀式。雄鳥聚集在共用的展示場,試圖吸引雌鳥,而雌鳥會在此展示場中選擇配偶。儀式通常在太陽剛下山時最為熱鬧。此時雄鳥會鳴唱、抖翅、跳躍空中、作各種展示動作,以圖吸引雌鳥的注意。

A lek is a gathering of males, of certain animal species, for the purposes of competitive mating display. Leks assemble before and during the breeding season, on a daily basis. The same group of males meet at a traditional place and take up the same individual positions on an arena, each occupying and defending a small territory or court. Intermittently or continuously, they spar individually with their neighbors or put on extravagant visual or aural displays (mating “dances” or gymnastics, plumage displays, vocal challenges, etc.).

一個Lek是指某些物種的雄性聚集成群,一起展示、競爭配偶。Lek在繁殖季前及季中每天聚集,同ㄧ群雄性在傳統地方碰面,每個個體佔據競技場的同ㄧ個位置,捍衛ㄧ小塊地盤。然後連續或間歇地與旁邊個體爭鬥,或持續盡情地進行視覺與聲音的求偶展示(如跳求偶舞、展示羽毛、鳴唱挑戰等)。

bird leks typically have 25-30 individuals. Lek mating arena, modeled on the sage grouse, in which each male, alpha-male (highest ranking), beta-male, gamma-male, etc., guards a territory of a few meters in size on average, and in which the dominant males may each attract up to eight or more females. In addition, each individual is shown with variations in personal space (bubbles), where by higher-ranking individuals have larger personal space bubbles.

這是Sage Grouse求偶競技場的ㄧ個範例。在其中雄鳥α(最高階者)、雄鳥β、雄鳥γ等各捍衛平均數公尺大小的地盤。在此競技場中,主要支配者可能吸引多達8隻雌鳥。各雄鳥支配的地盤大小不同,高階者佔據較大舞台。ㄧ般鳥類Lek可能集合25~30隻雄鳥。

環頸雉龐雜的亞種

環頸雉Ring-necked Pheasant

Other common names: Common Pheasant(普通雉雞)

Taxonomy: Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, 1758

Sometimes considered conspecific with P. versicolor, which is thus relegated to subspecies level; however, the two are not now generally regarded as conspecific, because present species, when introduced to Japan, is apparently unable to survive, presumably due to competition with P. versicolor, and failure to hybridize successfully; nevertheless, they hybridize extensively where both introduced in Hawaii. Internal taxonomy of species requires extensive revision. Populations of E Asia sometimes considered to constitute a separate species, P. torquatus.

分布於歐洲、亞洲至中國。被引進北美及澳洲紐西蘭的少數地區。(環頸雉分布圖)

 

31 Subspecies (31個亞種)

1. formosanus Elliot, 1870 – Taiwan. 臺灣

2. karpowi Buturlin, 1904 – NE China (S Manchuria and N Hebei) and Korea. 東北中國及韓國

3. kiangsuensis Buturlin, 1904 – NE China (N Shanxi and Shaanxi) and SE Mongolia. 東北中國及東南蒙古

4. strauchi Przevalski, 1876 – C China (S Shaanxi and S & C Gansu).

5. suehschanensis Bianchi, 1906 – WC China (NW Sichuan).

6. elegans Elliot, 1870 – WC China (W Sichuan).

7. decollatus Swinhoe, 1870 – C China (Sichuan E to W Hubei and S to NE Yunnan and Guizhou).

8. torquatus Gmelin, 1789 – E China (Shandong S to China Vietnam border).

9. rothschildi La Touche, 1922 – SC China (E Yunnan) and N Vietnam.

10. takatsukasae Delacour, 1927 – S China (S Guangxi) and N Vietnam.

11. pallasi Rothschild, 1903 – SE Siberia and NE China.

12. hagenbecki Rothschild, 1901 – NW Mongolia. 西北蒙古

13. edzinensis Sushkin, 1926 – SC Mongolia. 中南蒙古

14. satscheuensis Pleske, 1892 – NC China (extreme W Gansu).

15. vlangallii Przevalski, 1876 – NC China (N Qinghai).

16. alaschanicus Alphéraky & Bianchi, 1908 – NC China (W foothills of Helan Shan).

17. sohokhotensis Burtulin, 1908 – NC China (Sohokhoto Oasis in Helan Shan; possibly also this race in Qilian Shan).

18. zarudnyi Buturlin, 1904 – Turkestan (valleys of C Amud ar’ya). 土耳其斯坦

19. bianchii Buturlin, 1904 – Turkestan (Amud ar’ya Delta). 土耳其斯坦

20. shawii Elliot, 1870 – Chinese Turkestan. 中國土耳其斯坦

21. tarimensis Pleske, 1888 – CE Chinese Turkestan. 中東中國土耳其斯坦

22. septentrionalis Lorenz, 1888 – N Caucasus. 北高加索

23. colchicus Linnaeus, 1758 – Transcaucasia, in E Georgia, NE Azerbaijan, S Armenia and NW Iran. 東格魯吉亞的外高加索,東北阿塞拜江,南亞美尼亞及西北伊朗

24. talischensis Lorenz, 1888 – SE Transcaucasia. 東南高加索

25. persicus Severtsov, 1875 – SW Transcaspia. 西南中亞地區

26. bergii Zarudny, 1914 – islands of Aral Sea. 地中海島嶼

27. turcestanicus Lorenz, 1896 – Kazakhstan (valley of R Syrdar’ya). 哈撒克斯坦

28. mongolicus J. F. Brandt, 1844 – NE Russian Turkestan. 東北俄羅斯土耳其斯坦

29. principalis P. L. Sclater, 1885 – S Russian Turkestan and N Afghanistan. 南俄羅斯土耳其斯坦及北阿富汗

30.chrysomelas Severtsov, 1875 – Turkestan (upper R Amud ar’ya). 土耳其斯坦

31. zerafschanicus Tarnovski, 1893 – S Uzbekistan (Bukhara, ZerafshanValley). 南烏茲別克斯坦